Active submarine volcanism on the Society hotspot swell (west pacific): A geochemical study

Devey, Colin W., Albarède, F., Cheminee, J.-L., Michard, A., Mühe, R. and Stoffers, Peter (1990) Active submarine volcanism on the Society hotspot swell (west pacific): A geochemical study Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, 96 (B4). pp. 5049-5066. DOI 10.1029/JB095iB04p05049.

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The present work deals with the petrography and geochemistry of lavas dredged from five active submarine volcanoes (named Mehetia, Moua Pihaa, Rocard, Teahitia, and Cyana) from the southeast end of the Society Islands hotspot trace. Most samples are basic and alkaline, ranging from 16 to 5 wt % MgO, with about 5% normative nepheline. Fractionation modelling based on major and minor compatible element variations suggests that olivine and minor clinopyroxene were the major fractionating phases and implies a maximum range of fractionation of 30–35%. Rocard and Cyana have yielded more evolved, trachy-phonolitic, glassy samples. These evolved samples are thought to be derived by removal of 70% cumulate from the basalts. Both basaltic and phonolitic samples are incompatible-element enriched, with La/YbN ≈ 15 in most of the basalts. The trachy-phonolite patterns show middle rare earth element (REE) depletion and negative Eu anomalies. The Moua Pihaa basalts have flatter patterns than the other basalts (La/YbN = 7.5–12.4). All samples, with the exception of a sample from Moua Pihaa which has elevated 206Pb/204Pb, fall on linear Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic arrays, suggesting two end-member mixing. The most depleted end-member is shown to be a pristine ocean island basalt magma with no detectable contribution from a depleted, mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) upper mantle. The flatter REE patterns and higher 206Pb/204Pb of the Moua Pihaa sample are taken to indicate a more depleted, U-enriched (high μ) component in its source. This component may be altered oceanic crust. The Sr isotopic variations in the samples excluding Moua Pihaa correlate positively with Rb/Nb, Pb/Ce, and SiO2 variations, indicating a component of mantle enriched by injection of material from a subducted oceanic slab. Correlation of 207Pb/204Pb with 87Sr/86Sr suggests that the subducted material is geochemically old. Mapping the geochemical variations shows that the contribution to the lavas from the subduction component is greater over the north of the hotspot than in the south. The absence of a MORB component in the Society magmatism, the small volumes of the Polynesian hotspot volcanoes, and the lack of more intense volcanic activity near the center of the Pacific Supers well, all lead us to conclude that the latter is unlikely to be caused by a large convective plume. The Superswell is more probably located above a region in the asthenospheric mantle which, due to its higher content of recycled continental debris, is anomalously hot.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Submarine volcanism, geochemistry, Society Islands, West Pacific, Mehetia, Moua Pihaa, Rocard, Teahitia, Cyana
Research affiliation: Kiel University
Refereed: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.1029/JB095iB04p05049
ISSN: 0148-0227
Date Deposited: 18 Feb 2008 17:27
Last Modified: 25 Apr 2018 09:39

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