Review Article: How does glacier discharge affect marine biogeochemistry and primary production in the Arctic?

Hopwood, Mark J., Carroll, Dustin, Dunse, Thorben, Hodson, Andy, Holding, Johnna M., Iriarte, José L., Ribeiro, Sofia, Achterberg, Eric P., Cantoni, Carolina, Carlson, Daniel F., Chierici, Melissa, Clarke, Jennifer S., Cozzi, Stefano, Fransson, Agneta, Juul-Pedersen, Thomas, Winding, Mie S. and Meire, Lorenz (2020) Review Article: How does glacier discharge affect marine biogeochemistry and primary production in the Arctic? The Cryosphere, 14 . pp. 1347-1383. DOI 10.5194/tc-14-1347-2020.

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Supplementary data:

Abstract

Freshwater discharge from glaciers is increasing across the Arctic in response to anthropogenic climate change, which raises questions about the potential downstream effects in the marine environment. Whilst a combination of long-term monitoring programmes and intensive Arctic field campaigns have improved our knowledge of glacier–ocean interactions in recent years, especially with respect to fjord/ocean circulation, there are extensive knowledge gaps concerning how glaciers affect marine biogeochemistry and productivity. Following two cross-cutting disciplinary International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) workshops addressing the importance of glaciers for the marine ecosystem, here we review the state of the art concerning how freshwater discharge affects the marine environment with a specific focus on marine biogeochemistry and biological productivity. Using a series of Arctic case studies (Nuup Kangerlua/Godthåbsfjord, Kongsfjorden, Kangerluarsuup Sermia/Bowdoin Fjord, Young Sound and Sermilik Fjord), the interconnected effects of freshwater discharge on fjord–shelf exchange, nutrient availability, the carbonate system, the carbon cycle and the microbial food web are investigated. Key findings are that whether the effect of glacier discharge on marine primary production is positive or negative is highly dependent on a combination of factors. These include glacier type (marine- or land-terminating), fjord–glacier geometry and the limiting resource(s) for phytoplankton growth in a specific spatio-temporal region (light, macronutrients or micronutrients). Arctic glacier fjords therefore often exhibit distinct discharge–productivity relationships, and multiple case-studies must be considered in order to understand the net effects of glacier discharge on Arctic marine ecosystems.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: glacier, Arctic, Greenland, productivity, nutrients
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB2 Marine Biogeochemistry > FB2-CH Chemical Oceanography
Refereed: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.5194/tc-14-1347-2020
ISSN: 1994-0416
Projects: FONDECYT
Date Deposited: 24 Jun 2019 09:02
Last Modified: 24 Apr 2020 07:54
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/46987

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