Know your fish: A novel compound-specific isotope approach for tracing wild and farmed salmon

Wang, Yiming V., Wan, Alex H. L., Lock, Erik-Jan, Andersen, Nils, Winter-Schuh, Christine and Larsen, Thomas (2018) Know your fish: A novel compound-specific isotope approach for tracing wild and farmed salmon Food Chemistry, 256 . pp. 380-389. DOI 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.02.095.

Full text not available from this repository.

Supplementary data:



• A new method for profiling salmon using multivariate analyses of amino acids (AA) δ13C was developed.
• Characteristic δ13CAA profiles of distinct groups are referred to as δ13CAA fingerprints.
• The fingerprints can discriminate between wild and organic salmon with high fidelity.
• The fingerprints are well suited for detecting novel ingredients such as macroalgae and insects.
• δ13C profiles of essential and non-essential AA differ in their source diagnostic abilities.


The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry with carnivorous fish such as salmon has been accompanied by an equally rapid development in alternative feed ingredients. This has outpaced the ability of prevailing authentication method to trace the diet and origins of salmon products at the retail end. To close this gap, we developed a new profiling tool based on amino acid δ13C fingerprints. With this tool, we discriminated with high-accuracy among wild-caught, organically, and conventionally farmed salmon groups, as well as salmon fed alternative diets such as insects and macroalgae. Substitution of fishmeal with macroalgae was detected at 5% difference level. The δ13C fingerprints of essential amino acids appear particularly well suited for tracing protein sources, and the non-essentials for tracing lipid origins (terrestrial vs. aquatic). In an industry constantly developing new feed proteins and functional additives, our method is a promising tool for tracing salmon and other seafood products.

Chemical compounds studied in this article:
Histidine (His)
Isoleucine (Ile)
Leucine (Leu)
Phenylalanine (Phe)
Valine (Val)
Glycine (Gly)
Proline (Pro)
Tyrosine (Tyr)
Serine (Ser)

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Compound specific isotope analyses Amino acid δ13C fingerprinting Bulk δ13C and δ15N analyses Organically and conventionally farmed salmon Wild Atlantic and Pacific salmon Fish diet reconstruction Alternative feed ingredients Seaweed meal Insect meal Seafood traceability and authentication
Research affiliation: Kiel University > Kiel Marine Science
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
Kiel University
Refereed: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.02.095
ISSN: 03088146
Projects: Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 18 May 2018 10:31
Last Modified: 18 May 2018 10:31

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