Hydrocarbons and related photo-oxidation products in Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal waters and hydrocarbons in underlying sediments and bioindicator bivalves

Ehrhardt, Manfred G. and Burns, Kathryn A. (1993) Hydrocarbons and related photo-oxidation products in Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal waters and hydrocarbons in underlying sediments and bioindicator bivalves Marine Pollution Bulletin, 27 . pp. 187-197. DOI 10.1016/0025-326X(93)90024-E.

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Abstract

Saudi Arabian coastal waters near sandy beaches, severely contaminated with crude oil released in Kuwait during the 1991 Gulf War, as well as underlying sediments and a few bivalves, were analysed to assess concentrations and composition of petrogenic hydrocarbon mixtures and structurally related oxidation products. Concentrations of dissolved oil residues determined by UV spectrofluorometry (UVF) near oil deposits on beaches did not exceed 3.5 μg l−1; concentrations dropped to approximately 1/10th of this value a few miles offshore. Gravimetric concentrations of unfractionated lipophilic material extracted from large volumes of seawater at the same stations were up to 10 times those determined by UVF. After chromatography on silica gel, individual petroleum hydrocarbons in the low polarity fractions and oxidation products in the polar fractions were characterized by their spectra (GC/MS) and quantitated by Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) GC/MS. Concentrations of oxidation products (ketones, aldehydes, alcohols) of aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded those of their parent compounds by more than an order of magnitude. Significant concentrations were also found of the presumably pyrogenic triplett sensitizer anthraquinone. Contributions to polar fractions of water extracts by biosynthesized lipids were negligible. UVF determinations appear to underestimate concentrations of dissolved oil residues, because many oxidation products have lower fluorescence quantum yields than the respective parent hydrocarbons. Their ecotoxicological properties are unknown.

Concentrations measured in sediments by UVF ranged from 13 to 540 μg g−1 dry wt and 0.5 to 103 μg g−1 as measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (FID GC). Bivalves ranged from 0.8 to 1.5 μg mg−1 extractable organic matter (EOM) by UVF, and 0.1 to 0.3 μg mg−1 EOM by GC analysis. PAHs were identified in sediment and bivalve extracts by GC/MS and quantitated by SIM GC/MS. None of the relatively water soluble alkylbenzene photo-oxidation products found in water samples nor any higher molecular weight quinones could be detected in sediment extracts. However, ion chromatograms strongly suggest the presence of numerous high molecular weight aromatics in that matrix.

Document Type: Article
Research affiliation: OceanRep > Institute for Marine Science Kiel
Refereed: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.1016/0025-326X(93)90024-E
ISSN: 0025-326X
Date Deposited: 07 Mar 2018 12:10
Last Modified: 07 Mar 2018 12:10
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/42182

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