Petrogenesis and origin of modern Ethiopian rift basalts: Constraints from isotope and trace element geochemistry

Ayalew, D., Jung, S., Romer, R. L., Kersten, F., Pfander, J. A. and Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter (2016) Petrogenesis and origin of modern Ethiopian rift basalts: Constraints from isotope and trace element geochemistry Lithos, 258 . pp. 1-14. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2016.04.001.

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Abstract

The source of continental rift-related basalts and their relation to rifting processes is a continuous matter of debate. We present major and trace element and Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb isotope data for axial rift basalts from eight volcanic centres (Ayelu, Hertali, Dofan, Fantale, Kone, Bosetti and Gedemsa, from NE to SW) in Afar and Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) to assess their source regions and their genetic relationships. These lavas have geochemical characteristics, i.e., a peak at Ba, Nb and troughs at K and Rb in primitive mantle-normalised multielement diagrams, which are consistent with predominant melting of an amphibole-bearing lithospheric mantle. However, the isotopic compositions for these lavas are heterogeneous (Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.70354-0.70431, Nd-143/Nd-144 = 0.51280-0.51294,(176)Hr/Hf-177 = 0.28301-0.28315, Pb-206/Pb-204 = 18.48-19.31, Pb-207/Pb-204 = 15.53-15.62, Pb-208/Pb-204 = 38.61-39.06) and require various mantle reservoirs with distinctive isotopic signatures. The range of isotopic compositions requires the involvement of three distinct source components from the asthenospheric and veined lithospheric mantle. Progressive rifting leads to lithosperic thinning and upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle, which induces melting of the veined lithospheric mantle. The trace element characteristics of the lavas are dominated by the vein material, which has a higher trace element content than the surrounding mantle. The isotopic composition of the vein material, however, is not very different from the ambient mantle, giving rise of apparent uncoupling of trace element and isotope constraints for the melt source. The uprising basaltic liquids in part inherit a lithospheric trace element signature, while their isotopic compositions are mostly unaffected due to short residence times within the lithosphere in context with progressive rifting and lithospheric thinning. Thus, the geochemical and isotope data are consistent with a multi-component source prevailing beneath the Afar and MER areas in which the basalts are generated during progressive rifting and, thus, passive upwelling of a mantle source. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: Times Cited: 0 Ayalew, D. Jung, S. Romer, R. L. Kersten, F. Pfaender, J. A. Garbe-Schoenberg, D.
Research affiliation: OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
Kiel University
Refereed: Yes
DOI etc.: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2016.04.001
ISSN: 0024-4937
Projects: Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 16 Mar 2017 07:09
Last Modified: 19 Dec 2017 12:42
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/36003

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