Biparental immune priming in the pipefish Syngnathus typhle

Beemelmanns, Anne and Roth, Olivia (2016) Biparental immune priming in the pipefish Syngnathus typhle Zoology, 119 (5). pp. 262-272. DOI 10.1016/j.zool.2016.06.002.

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Supplementary data:

Abstract

Highlights:
• In a sex-role reversed pipefish, fathers have a major impact on offspring immunity.
• Maternal effects are effective early in life but cease upon maturation.
• Fathers provide long-term protection that comes with immunological specificity.
• Long-term protection could be based on parental epigenetic traces.
• Biparental immunological transfer comes with additive costs but lacks additive advantages.

Abstract:
The transfer of immunity from parents to offspring (trans-generational immune priming (TGIP)) boosts offspring immune defence and parasite resistance. TGIP is usually a maternal trait. However, if fathers have a physical connection to their offspring, and if offspring are born in the paternal parasitic environment, evolution of paternal TGIP can become adaptive. In Syngnathus typhle, a sex-role reversed pipefish with male pregnancy, both parents invest into offspring immune defence. To connect TGIP with parental investment, we need to know how parents share the task of TGIP, whether TGIP is asymmetrically distributed between the parents, and how the maternal and paternal effects interact in case of biparental TGIP. We experimentally investigated the strength and differences but also the costs of maternal and paternal contribution, and their interactive biparental influence on offspring immune defence throughout offspring maturation. To disentangle maternal and paternal influences, two different bacteria were used in a fully reciprocal design for parental and offspring exposure. In offspring, we measured gene expression of 29 immune genes, 15 genes associated with epigenetic regulation, immune cell activity and life-history traits. We identified asymmetric maternal and paternal immune priming with a dominating, long-lasting paternal effect. We could not detect an additive adaptive biparental TGIP impact. However, biparental TGIP harbours additive costs as shown in delayed sexual maturity. Epigenetic regulation may play a role both in maternal and paternal TGIP.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Maternal effects; Paternal effects; Trans-generational immune priming; Epigenetic effects; Host–parasite interaction
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-EV Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Fishes
Refereed: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.zool.2016.06.002
ISSN: 0944-2006
Date Deposited: 01 Sep 2016 08:35
Last Modified: 04 May 2017 07:20
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/33671

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