Skin-Derived C-Terminal Filaggrin-2 Fragments Are Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Directed Antimicrobials Targeting Bacterial Replication

Hansmann, Britta, Schröder, Jens-Michael and Gerstel, Ulrich (2015) Skin-Derived C-Terminal Filaggrin-2 Fragments Are Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Directed Antimicrobials Targeting Bacterial Replication Plos Pathogens, 11 (9).

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Abstract

Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2), a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil-and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin's antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: Times Cited: 1
Research affiliation: OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
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ISSN: 1553-7366
Projects: Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 18 Oct 2016 03:47
Last Modified: 18 Oct 2016 03:47
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/32506

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