The Influence of Climatic Variations on River Delta Hydrodynamics and Morphodynamics in the Parnaiba Delta, Brazil

da Silva, Andre G. Aquino, Stattegger, Karl, Schwarzer, Klaus, Vital, Helenice and Heise, Bjorn (2015) The Influence of Climatic Variations on River Delta Hydrodynamics and Morphodynamics in the Parnaiba Delta, Brazil Journal of Coastal Research, 31 (4). pp. 930-940.

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Abstract

In this work, we present a baseline study on the geo-environmental, morphodynamical, and hydrodynamical conditions of the Parnaiba River and its mouth, the Parnaiba River Delta (PRD). The outline of the PRD indicates that waves are the major forcing factor for delta development. Furthermore, the shape of the delta suggests that there is a considerable degree of asymmetry in its formation. The asymmetry is the result of coastal current influence on the reworking of the sediments that are discharged by the river. To investigate the hydrodynamic conditions of the area, field measurements were conducted on the river, offshore of the PRD, and on the tidal channels of the west part of the delta. At these locations, the currents, salinity, temperature, and tidal dynamics were measured. In addition, a time series of rainfall, river discharge, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were obtained from Brazilian governmental agencies. The interpretation of all of the data was used to determine how they interact to characterize the hydro- and morphodynamics of the PRD. Harmonic analysis was of high importance in the analysis of the time series, and it was employed to identify longer periods presenting similarities in terms of meteorological conditions. This allowed determination of the interconnection between rainfall, river discharge, and SSC with the occurrence and intensity of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The influence of river discharge, rainfall, and SSC on shoreline change was demonstrated through the analysis of decadal shoreline evolution using a series of LANDSAT images covering the period from 1981 to 2009. The analysis revealed that most changes occurred westward from the PR mouth. Changes in spit migration velocity were correlated to variations in riverine sediment yielded as a result of variations of river discharge and SSC.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: Times Cited: 0
Research affiliation: Kiel University > Kiel Marine Science
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence > FO-R06
Kiel University
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 0749-0208
Projects: Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 20 Oct 2016 10:57
Last Modified: 19 Dec 2017 12:46
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/32440

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