The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

Olsen, Jeanine L., Rouze, Pierre, Verhelst, Bram, Lin, Yao-Cheng, Bayer, Till, Collen, Jonas, Dattolo, Emanuela, De Paoli, Emanuele, Dittami, Simon, Maumus, Florian, Michel, Gurvan, Kersting, Anna, Lauritano, Chiara, Lohaus, Rolf, Töpel, Mats, Tonon, Thierry, Vanneste, Kevin, Amirebrahimi, Mojgan, Brakel, Janina, Boström, Christoffer, Chovatia, Mansi, Grimwood, Jane, Jenkins, Jerry W., Jueterbock, Alexander, Mraz, Amy, Stam, Wytze T., Tice, Hope, Bornberg-Bauer, Erich, Green, Pamela J., Pearson, Gareth A., Procaccini, Gabriele, Duarte, Carlos M., Schmutz, Jeremy, Reusch, Thorsten B.H. and Van de Peer, Yves (2016) The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea Nature, 530 . pp. 331-335. DOI 10.1038/nature16548.

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Abstract

Seagrasses colonized the sea1 on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet2. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes3, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae4 and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming5, 6, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: Raw reads, the assembled genome sequence and annotation are accessible from NCBI under BioProject number PRJNA41721 with GenBank accession number LFYR00000000. The accession number for the Zostera marina Finnish Clone is BioSample SAMN00991190. Fosmid end sequence: GSS KG963492– KG999999; KO000001– KO144970, whole-genome shotgun data: SRA020075 and RNA-seq: GEO GSE67579 - WOS:000370327100036
Keywords: FLOWERING PLANTS; RNA-SEQ; CHROMOSOME-NUMBERS; MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD; GENE LISTS; NEW-JERSEY; EVOLUTION; ECOSYSTEMS; SEQUENCES; PROTEIN
Research affiliation: OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence > FO-R03
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence > FO-R08
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-EV Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Fishes
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
Kiel University
Refereed: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.1038/nature16548
ISSN: 0028-0836
Related URLs:
Projects: DOUBLE-UP, Future Ocean, RITMARE, COST, Zostera marina
Date Deposited: 28 Jan 2016 10:20
Last Modified: 03 May 2017 07:42
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/31203

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