Volcaniclastic stratigraphy of the Tiscapa maar crater walls (Managua, Nicaragua) : implications for volcanic and seismic hazards and Holocene climate changes

Freundt, Armin, Hartmann, A., Kutterolf, Steffen and Strauch, W. (2010) Volcaniclastic stratigraphy of the Tiscapa maar crater walls (Managua, Nicaragua) : implications for volcanic and seismic hazards and Holocene climate changes International Journal of Earth Sciences, 99 . pp. 1453-1470. DOI 10.1007/s00531-009-0469-6.

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Abstract

The Tiscapa maar in the center of Managua city formed by a phreatomagmatic eruption <3 ka ago. The eruption excavated a crater deep into the basement exposing a coherent Pleistocene to Holocene volcaniclastic succession that we have divided into four formations. The lowermost, >60 ka old basaltic–andesitic formation F1 comprises mafic ignimbrites and phreatomagmatic tephras derived from the Las Sierras volcanic complex south of Managua. Formation F2 contains the ~60 ka basaltic–andesitic Fontana tephra erupted from the Las Nubes Caldera of the Las Sierras complex 15 km to the S, the 25 ka Upper Apoyo tephra from the Apoyo Caldera 35 km to the SE, and the Lower (~17 ka) and Upper (12.4 ka) Apoyeque tephras from the Chiltepe volcanic complex 15 km to the NW. These tephras are separated by weathering horizons and paleosols indicating dry climatic conditions. Fluvial deposits of a SSW-NNE running paleo-river system build formation F3. The fluvial sediments contain, from bottom to top, scoriae from the ~6 ka basaltic San Antonio tephra, pumice lapilli from the Apoyo and Apoyeque tephras and the 6.1 ka Xiloà tephra, and scoriae derived from the Fontana tephra. The fluvial sediment succession thus reflects progressively deeper carving erosion in the southern highlands (where a large-amplitude regional erosional unconformity exists at the appropriate stratigraphic level) that began after ~6 ka. This suggests that the mid-Holocene tropical high-precipitation climatic phase affected western Nicaragua about a thousand years later than other circum-Caribbean regions. The end of the wet climate phase ~3 ka ago is recorded by a deep weathering zone and paleosol atop formation F3 prior to the Tiscapa eruption. Formation F4 is the Tiscapa tuffring composed of pyroclastic surge and fallout deposits that cover a minimum area of 1.2 km2. The 4 × 109 kg of erupted basaltic magma is compositionally and genetically related to the low-Ti basalts of the N–S striking Nejapa-Miraflores volcanic–tectonic alignment 5 km to the West of Tiscapa. Ascent and eruption mode of the Tiscapa magma were controlled by the Tiscapa fault that has a very active seismic history as it achieved 12 m displacement in about 3000 years. Managua city is thus exposed to continued seismic and volcanic risks.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: tephrostratigraphy, fluvial sediments, maar eruption, faulting and volcanism, paleoclimate
Research affiliation: OceanRep > SFB 574 > C4
OceanRep > SFB 574
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-MUHS Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems
Refereed: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.1007/s00531-009-0469-6
ISSN: 1437-3254
Contribution Number:
ProjectNumber
SFB 574139
Expeditions/Models:
Date Deposited: 27 Aug 2009 10:37
Last Modified: 18 May 2017 12:31
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/2678

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