Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) in bacteria - A bioinformatic perspective

Kisiela, M., Skarka, A., Ebert, B. and Maser, Edmund (2012) Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) in bacteria - A bioinformatic perspective Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 129 (1-2). pp. 31-46.

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Abstract

Steroidal compounds including cholesterol, bile acids and steroid hormones play a central role in various physiological processes such as cell signaling, growth, reproduction, and energy homeostasis. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), which belong to the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) or aldo-keto reductases (AKR), are important enzymes involved in the steroid hormone metabolism. HSDs function as an enzymatic switch that controls the access of receptor-active steroids to nuclear hormone receptors and thereby mediate a fine-tuning of the steroid response. The aim of this study was the identification of classified functional HSDs and the bioinformatic annotation of these proteins in all complete sequenced bacterial genomes followed by a phylogenetic analysis. For the bioinformatic annotation we constructed specific hidden Markov models in an iterative approach to provide a reliable identification for the specific catalytic groups of HSDs. Here, we show a detailed phylogenetic analysis of 3 alpha-, 7 alpha-, 12 alpha-HSDs and two further functional related enzymes (3-ketosteroid-Delta(1)-dehydrogenase, 3-ketosteroid-Delta(4)(5 alpha)-dehydrogenase) from the superfamily of SDRs. For some bacteria that have been previously reported to posses a specific HSD activity, we could annotate the corresponding HSD protein. The dominating phyla that were identified to express HSDs were that of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Moreover, some evolutionarily more ancient microorganisms (e.g., Cyanobacteria and Euryachaeota) were found as well. A large number of HSD-expressing bacteria constitute the normal human gastro-intestinal flora. Another group of bacteria were originally isolated from natural habitats like seawater, soil, marine and permafrost sediments. These bacteria include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Rhodococcus. In conclusion, HSDs are found in a wide variety of microorganisms including bacteria and archaea, suggesting that steroid metabolism is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that might serve different functions such as nutrient supply and signaling. Article from a special issue on steroids and microorganisms. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: Univ Med Sch Schleswig Holstein, Inst Toxicol & Pharmacol Nat Scientists, D-24105 Kiel, Germany. Charles Univ Prague, Fac Pharm, Dept Biochem Sci, CZ-50005 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Maser, E (reprint author), Univ Med Sch Schleswig Holstein, Inst Toxicol & Pharmacol Nat Scientists, Campus Kiel,Brunswiker Str 10, D-24105 Kiel, Germany. kisiela@toxi.uni-kiel.de; Adam.Skarka@faf.cuni.cz; ebert@toxi.uni-kiel.de; maser@toxi.uni-kiel.de
Keywords: Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) Hidden Markov model Phylogenetic analysis Bioinformatic approach Bacteria Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases Steroid signaling Evolution comamonas-testosteroni ta441 polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons hidden markov-models escherichia-coli sp-nov. 7-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase protein families human feces 3-alpha,20-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
Research affiliation: OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
Kiel University
ISSN: 0960-0760
Projects: Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 14 May 2014 09:56
Last Modified: 14 May 2014 09:56
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/24062

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