CHEESE ěrb1|1 Smear-Ripened Cheeses

Bockelmann, W. (2011) CHEESE ěrb1|1 Smear-Ripened Cheeses Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 753-766.

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Abstract

The surface of smear-ripened cheeses is covered by a layer of yeasts and bacteria, which have a strong impact on appearance and flavor, resulting in an intense sulfurous and ammoniacal smell. The production of smear cheeses has a long tradition in Europe. The available statistics give no information on the percentage of smear-ripened cheeses; however, current estimates indicate that smear-ripened cheeses account for 5-15 of the European cheese market. Smear-ripened cheeses can be produced from any kind of rennet curd and can be divided into (semi)-soft, semihard, hard, and very hard cheeses. The smear cheese flora is extremely diverse and variable even for a single cheese variety, with compositional similarities found for all smeared varieties. The surface microflora mainly consists of yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum), food-grade staphylococci (Staphylococcus equorum), and coryneform bacteria (e.g., Corynebacterium casei, Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium gubbeenense, and Arthrobacter arilaitensis). On this compositional basis, defined surface starters were developed, which allowed typical surface ripening without `old-young' smearing, that is, without using recycled surface material from aged cheeses. Defined starters resembling the natural smear flora consist of 4-6 species. The functionality of defined starters was demonstrated in an EU-funded project for semihard cheese varieties, which also showed that the natural house microflora still had an additional impact on surface ripening. All species necessary for a basic surface starter became commercially available recently.

Document Type: Book chapter
Keywords: Arthorbacter arilaitensis Brevibacterium aurantiacum Brevibacterium linens Corynebacterium casei Coryneform bacteria Debaryomyces hansenii Geotrichum candidum Listeria monocytogenes Microbacterium gubbeenense Smear cheese Staphylococcus equorum Staphylococcus xylosus Surface ripening
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 01 Nov 2012 05:07
Last Modified: 07 Nov 2012 08:10
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/16824

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