The impact of climate and shore-level displacement on the late-Holocene environmental development of Havstens Fjord and Koljo Fjord, Swedish west coast

Gustafsson, M. and Nordberg, K. (2002) The impact of climate and shore-level displacement on the late-Holocene environmental development of Havstens Fjord and Koljo Fjord, Swedish west coast Holocene, 12 (3). pp. 325-338. DOI 10.1191/0959683602hl547rp.

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Abstract

Koljo Fjord and Havstens Fjord on the Swedish west coast are, like many silled fjords in Scandinavia, characterized by strong stratification and stagnant bottom water with periodically occurring low-oxygen and anoxic conditions. High organic production together with a stable water-column, very low tidal activity and existence of the sill create an ideal foundation for low-oxygen conditions to develop. The aim of this study was to find out how the fjord environments developed during the later part of the Holocene and, especially. how and when the low-oxygen conditions evolved. To achieve these goals, sediment cores were dated ((210)Pb and (14)C) and x-rayed, the distribution of benthic foraminifera was analysed and their content of the stable isotopes delta(18)O and delta(13)C was investigated. In both fjords. the climate proved to be of importance for the environment and it seems that increased freshwater runoff increased the primary production between 500 BC and AD 500. Increasing freshwater runoff not only increased primary production but, at least since AD 1880, also made the water stratification stronger and the deep water more stagnant. Stagnant conditions are the main cause of the development of periodic anoxia and formation of laminated sediments in Koljo Fjord from AD 1930 to 1980 and in Havstens Fjord from AD 1950. In Koljo Fjord. the isostatic land rise and the shallow sill are the. most important reasons for a general change from an almost normal saline deep-water environment to a brackish environment in AD 500. At that time the sill depth passed the pycnocline mean depth of 15 m. For Koljo Fjord, this is a threshold value of the depth for the quality of the deep water, marine or brackish.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: anoxia hypoxia laminated sediments benthic foraminifera climate sill fjord land uplift late Holocene recent Skagerrak Sweden benthic foraminiferal distribution gullmar fjord isotope fractionation salinity variations north-sea skagerrak sweden drammensfjord hydrography sediments
Research affiliation: Kiel University
Refereed: No
DOI etc.: 10.1191/0959683602hl547rp
ISSN: 0959-6836
Date Deposited: 02 Feb 2012 07:02
Last Modified: 08 Oct 2012 10:36
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/16238

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