The effect of oriented microcracks and crystallographic and shape preferred orientation on bulk elastic anisotropy of a foliated biotite gneiss from Outokumpu

Kern, H., Ivankina, T. I., Nikitin, A. N., Lokajicek, T. and Pros, Z. (2008) The effect of oriented microcracks and crystallographic and shape preferred orientation on bulk elastic anisotropy of a foliated biotite gneiss from Outokumpu Tectonophysics, 457 (3-4). pp. 143-149. DOI 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.06.015.

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Abstract

Elastic anisotropy is an important property of crustal and mantle rocks. This study investigates the contribution of oriented microcracks and crystallographic (LPO) and shape preferred orientation (SPO) to the bulk elastic anisotropy of a strongly foliated biotite gneiss, using different methodologies. The rock is felsic in composition (about 70 vol.% SiO(2)) and made up by about 40 vol.% quartz, 37 vol.% plagioclase and 23 vol.% biotite. Measurements of compressional (Vp) and shear wave (Vs) velocities on a sample cube in the three foliation-related structural directions (up to 600 MPa) and of the 3D P-wave velocity distribution on a sample sphere (up to 200 MPa) revealed a strong pressure sensitivity of Vp, Vs and P-wave anisotropy in the low pressure range. A major contribution to bulk anisotropy is from biotite. Importantly, intercrystalline and intracrystalline cracks are closely linked to the morphologic sheet plane (001) of the biotite minerals, leading to very high anisotropy at low pressure. Above about 150 MPa the effect of cracks is almost eliminated, due to progressive closure of microcracks. The residual (pressure-independent) part of velocity anisotropy is mainly caused by the strong alignment of the platy biotite minerals, displaying a strong SPO and LPO. Calculation of the 3D velocity distribution based on neutron diffraction texture measurements of biotite, quartz, and plagioclase and their single-crystal properties give evidence for an important contribution of the biotite LPO to the intrinsic velocity anisotropy, confirming the experimental findings that maximum and minimum velocities and shear wave splitting are closely related to foliation. Comparison of the LPO-based calculated anisotropy (about 8%) with measured intrinsic anisotropy (about 15% at 600 MPa) give hints for a major contribution of SPO to the bulk anisotropy of the rock. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Biotite gneiss Velocity measurements Seismic anisotropy Microcracks Lattice preferred orientation Shape preferred orientation seismic anisotropy superdeep well ivrea zone rocks wave dependence velocity kola
Research affiliation: Kiel University
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.06.015
ISSN: 0040-1951
Date Deposited: 12 Jan 2012 05:11
Last Modified: 08 Oct 2012 10:14
URI: http://eprints.uni-kiel.de/id/eprint/15850

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