Barometry of lavas from the 1951 eruption of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands: Implications for historic and prehistoric magma plumbing systems

Hildner, Elliot, Klügel, Andreas and Hansteen, Thor H. (2012) Barometry of lavas from the 1951 eruption of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands: Implications for historic and prehistoric magma plumbing systems Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 217-218 . pp. 73-90. DOI 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.12.014.

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Fogo is one of the most active oceanic volcanoes in the world. The island was affected by a prehistoric giant
lateral collapse that decapitated the summit of the former Monte Amarelo volcano. Subsequent volcanism
has partly filled the collapse scar and built up the present-day Cha das Caldeiras plain and the Pico do Fogo
stratovolcano. We have conducted a thermobarometric study of historic and prehistoric, basanitic to tephritic
rocks in order to gain insight into Fogo's magma plumbing system and the impact of the collapse event on
fractionation depths. A main focus was the penultimate 1951 eruption, which produced basanites to tephrites
(5.0–8.2 wt.% MgO) at two sites south and northwest of Pico do Fogo. Clinopyroxene–melt barometry of phenocrysts
yields a well-confined pressure range of 480–650 MPa for the final crystallization level. Microthermometric
data of CO2-dominated fluid inclusions in olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts yield
systematically lower pressures of 250–430 MPa. Inclusions in cumulate xenoliths yield pressures of
100–290 MPa. The combined data indicate pre-eruptive magma storage in the uppermost mantle between
17 and 22 km depth and syn-eruptive short-term magma stalling within the lower crust at 8–13 km depth.
The lower pressures revealed by fluid inclusions in xenoliths may indicate that they originate from pre-
1951 magma pulses that stalled and crystallized at variable levels in the crust. There is, however, no petrologic
evidence for persistent crustal magma chambers. Clinopyroxene–melt barometric data of other historic
and prehistoric eruptions indicate that magma storage and differentiation occurred in the uppermost mantle
at pressures between 420 and 870 MPa (15–30 km depth) throughout the subaerial evolution of Fogo. Our
data indicate that fractionation depths decreased significantly during a period of about 100 ka representing
a strong growth phase of Fogo edifice leading up to the giant Monte Amarelo flank collapse at 123–62 ka.
This trend seems to have been interrupted by the flank collapse, as early post-collapse magmas stagnated
at deeper levels than late pre-collapse ones. Historic eruptions show shallower and broader pressure ranges,
indicating an increase in complexity of the magma storage systems. Thus petrologic data indicate that flank
collapse events may significantly influence deep-seated magma plumbing systems beneath ocean islands.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Volcanology; Cape Verde, magma plumbing, petrology, eruption, thermobarometry, fluid inclusion, flank collapse
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-MUHS Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems
Refereed: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.12.014
ISSN: 0377-0273
Date Deposited: 12 Mar 2012 11:35
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2017 12:00

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